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According to a U. Government estimate, , to , people are trafficked across international borders each year having been bought, sold, transported and held in slavery-like conditions for sex and labor exploitation. The U. Government estimates that 18, to 20, people are trafficked annually into the United States. The nature of this crime -- underground, often under-acknowledged -- contributes to the inability to determine the precise number of people who are victimized by traffickers each year.

Trafficking in Persons Report 2013: Bolivia

The scope of this hideous exploitation is wide and varied, but typically involves victims entrapped into commercial sexual exploitation such as prostitution and pornography, or labor exploitation in sweatshops, construction sites and agricultural settings. Additional forms of forced labor and abuse include domestic servitude and forced marriages.

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B67 Discussing the multinational networks, global economics, and personal motives that fuel a multibillion dollar trade in human beings as cheap labour, Borderline Slavery suggests future directions for effective policies and law enforcement strategies to prevent the advance of trafficking. As such, it is of interest to both policy makers and scholars across the social sciences working in the fields of migration, exploitation and trafficking.

Child Exploitation and Trafficking by Virginia M. Kendall; Markus T.

United States | Global Slavery Index

Funk Call Number: KF K46 Each year, more than two million children around the world fall victim to commercial sexual exploitation. The numbers of children sexually abused for non-commercial purposes are even higher. Put simply, the growing, increasingly-organized epidemic of child exploitation demands a coordinated response.

BOLIVIA (Tier 2)

The aim of this book is to bring some fresh thinking to this complicated area of the law, and to help erase some of its counterproductive mythology. The book provides the first comprehensive, practical introduction to the history and present-day reality of child sexual exploitation, as well as to the interconnected web of domestic and transnational federal laws and law enforcement efforts launched in response thereto.

Subject guide

It is written from the distinctive perspective of those who have spent their careers in the trenches investigating, prosecuting, and adjudicating these intricate and commonly emotional cases. Relying on real-world examples, the authors offer proscriptive and descriptive practical advice and reform proposals aimed at those involved at all levels in this difficult area. Serving as a "first-line" resource for clear, practical thinking on the range of complex, and often misunderstood, investigative, prosecutorial, and rehabilitative issues surrounding child exploitation cases, this work is a must-have for anyone with interest in the protection of children from sexual exploitation and trafficking.

Child Exploitation and Trafficking by T. Markus Funk; Virginia M. Kendall; Richard A. Each year, more than two million children around the world fall victim to commercial sexual and labor exploitation. Put simply, the growing epidemic of child exploitation demands a coordinated response.


Responses brings fresh, practical thinking to this oft-misunderstood area of the law, helping erase some of its counterproductive mythology. The book not only provides the first comprehensive, practical introduction to the history and present-day reality of child exploitation and supply chain issues, but it also traces the interconnected web of domestic and transnational federal laws and law enforcement efforts launched in response thereto. M57 This book demystifies the term "trafficking" with a view to properly understand its trends, dimensions, and gaps in policy and law that need to be plugged.

Combating Human Trafficking aims to initiate fresh discussion on human trafficking, and offers recommendations to curb organized international crime. It explores varied dimensions of the crime and offers further classification to help effectively address the problem. It presents a new perspective of identifying assimilative interaction between social and criminal justice systems, the progressive growth in socio-criminal legislations, and the universal demand of multi-agency approach to combat trafficking.

Through the Brute Mute theory, it gives an illustrative description of micro- and macro-governance, and offers a global perspective to the problem with examples and case studies.

2013 Trafficking in Persons Report - Chile

C66 Combating trafficking in human beings THB for labor exploitation requires additional skills, knowledge, and awareness for effective investigation and prosecution, and for the identification and assistance of victims of this form of THB. Actors other than the police and the prosecution services such as labor inspectorates, social investigation services, and municipalities have also become involved in these activities.

It is unclear which role these actors can have in identifying victims and in investigating and prosecuting cross-border THB for labor exploitation and which improvements are needed. They are often unfamiliar with, for instance, the specific needs of victims, how trafficking networks operate, and how to cooperate with colleagues abroad. These problems obviously hamper the combating of THB for labor exploitation. In addition, difficulties in defining THB for labor exploitation still exist. One can say that labor exploitation includes, at least, forced and compulsory labor and services, slavery, and slavery-like practices, although this does not solve the problems encountered in defining the crime.

In this book, these and other problems, as well as the challenges of dealing with these problems, are identified. It includes research in five countries Austria, The Netherlands, Romania, Serbia, and Spain , research on the EU legal framework, an analysis of the country studies, as well as four articles reflecting on these problems. I Every day in the United States, children and adolescents are victims of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking.

Despite the serious and long-term consequences for victims as well as their families, communities, and society, efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to these crimes are largely under supported, inefficient, uncoordinated, and unevaluated. The report concludes that efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States require better collaborative approaches. These efforts need to confront demand and the individuals who commit and benefit from these crimes. The recommendations in the report have the potential to advance and strengthen the nation's emerging efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors.

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These are not only illegal activities, but also forms of violence and abuse that result in immediate and long-term physical, mental, and emotional harm to victims and survivors. The report found that the United States is in the very early stages of recognizing, understanding, and developing solutions for these crimes. Victim and support service professionals need to be able to recognize past, ongoing, or potential victimization by commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking among the youth in their care.

Failure to do so increases the possibility that those at risk may become victims, and victims may miss opportunities for assistance and remain vulnerable to further exploitation and abuse. This Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services provides a summary of information from the original report that is most relevant to individuals and organizations that provide and support services for children and adolescents, including, policy markers, leaders, and practitioners, organizations and programs at the local, state, and federal levels, child welfare and child protective services, nongovernmental organizations.

This guide includes definitions of key terms and an overview of risk factors and consequences; emerging strategies for preventing and responding to these crimes; key challenges to service provision; and recommendations aimed at identifying, preventing, and responding to these crimes. H86 V46 This book examines the smuggling of migrants and trafficking of human beings in the EU with a comparative analysis of how British and Italian law has approached the issues. It will be a valuable resource for academics and students working in the areas of migration, refugee, criminal justice and EU law as well as policy-makers and practitioners working with refugee and immigration issues.

G7 C75 This collection is the first major exploration of the issues related to young people who are affected by child sexual exploitation CSE and child trafficking for exploitation. These include consideration of the language we currently use to construct and understand CSE; how to conceptualise CSE and sexual violence that takes place in gangs or between peers; issues of how 'consent' relates to young people in abusive or exploitative sexual relationships; how young people themselves might participate in work to improve service delivery; why some looked after young people are at greater risk of CSE than others and how they might keep safe.

The volume also reviews policy and practice developments in Scotland; the risk of CSE for young women who go missing to escape forced marriages; the importance of including young people at risk of CSE in decision-making about their care; how and why trafficking and CSE came to be defined as objects of international policy concern and how community organizations might be mobilized to protect young people from the risk of trafficking for CSE.

R68 Trafficking in human beings has become a major international concern in the last two decades. Trafficking has been subjected to intense political debate and ambitious legal regulation on international, regional and national levels. Although much has been done to eradicate trafficking and to protect the victims, an increasing number of critical voices are emerging: the efforts to deal with human trafficking have proved to be more ineffective than anticipated.

This book seeks explanations to why anti-trafficking strategies and activities appear to be so futile, and what should be done better for them to achieve their goals with more success. Besides the academic audience, this study is written for legal practitioners, who might come across human trafficking in their work. D84 Accordingly, the due diligence standard presents a way to measure whether a state has fulfilled its obligations to prevent and respond to violence against women.

Despite its growing popularity as a tool for promoting greater state accountability for violence against women by non-state actors, the content and scope of due diligence obligations remain vague. Against the backdrop of contemporary issues that pose threats to women's rights, the contributors to this volume examine how the due diligence standard and other strategies can be applied as useful mechanisms to combat violence against women in various cultures worldwide.

H86 E93 The role of evaluation has become increasingly important in the context of EU policies in the field of judicial cooperation in criminal matters. This evolution is the result of an increasing number of legally binding instruments adopted in the framework of the third pillar of the European Union and of their growing impact on national legal systems. Evaluation represents an essential tool to appreciate the legislative and practical implementation of existing European criminal law and to assess and measure in greater detail the effects and impact of EU legislation.

Therefore, it plays a significant role in the establishment and strengthening of mutual trust in the EU area of freedom, security and justice. This book aims at developing a methodology for the assessment of the implementation and impact of European criminal law. Flesh and Money : trafficking in human beings by Petrus C.

F54 Cross-border mobility of people in Europe continues to worry the authorities, particularly when this leads to illegality and the exploitation of people, whether in the sex service, construction industry or agriculture. Much of the mobility concerns human trafficking, often women smuggled over the borders for exploitation in the sex industry. However, not all sex workers are dragged into the sex service industry against their will. Even if it is only an economic option of last resort, for many women it is a real temporary job for which they are prepared to be smuggled under dangerous condition.

This can even imply being smuggled by Bedouins on a camel through the desert into Israel. Other girls get in the grip of Bulgarian organised crime syndicates which stretch their control over their European sex lines from the streets in Sofia to top brothels for elite prostitutes in Berlin and London.